Tuesday, December 18, 2018
Merck Data at ESMO 2018 Congress Highlight Multiple Therapeutics with Potential to Transform Cancer Care
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DARMSTADT, Germany, October 9, 2018 /PRNewswire/ --

Not intended for distribution in the USA, Canada or UK  

ESMO Abstract #

Avelumab: LBA6_PR, 659P, 1290P, 1291P, 1282P, 877P; M7824 (TGF β-trap/anti-PD-L1):1048O, 1463P, 1931P, 757P, 643P, 642P, 661P; tepotinib (MET kinase inhibitor): 1377O, 621PD, 698P; M6620: 1437P; M3814: 1845P; M7583: 1014PD; abituzumab: 487P; Erbitux ®(cetuximab): 124P, 484P, 509P, 493P, 521P, 510P, 481P, 486P, 1057P, 1108P, 1068P, 1064P, 1293P

  • First presentation of Phase III data for avelumab (plus axitinib) in previously untreated, advanced kidney cancer
  • New and updated data for bifunctional immunotherapy M7824  
  • Results from Phase II trials for tepotinib, including in EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC  
  • Additional pipeline data feature abstracts for a further four innovative agents across multiple tumor types with a significant patient need  

Merck, a leading science and technology company, today announced that new data from a variety of high-priority clinical development programs will be presented at the ESMO 2018 Congress (European Society for Medical Oncology Annual Meeting), October 19-23, 2018, Munich, Germany.

In the year that Merck celebrates its 350-year anniversary, abstracts at the congress represent a company record with eight therapeutic agents across 14 tumor types, reinforcing Merck's position at the forefront of clinical development in oncology.

"Our data at this year's European Society for Medical Oncology Congress expand our understanding of avelumab in renal cell carcinoma and other tumors, and demonstrate the headway we are making with our pipeline, including bifunctional immunotherapy M7824 and tepotinib," said Luciano Rossetti, Global Head of Research & Development for the Biopharma business of Merck. "We look forward to many more years of real and significant progress towards our vision of transforming the management and treatment of cancer."

Data from the Phase III study JAVELIN Renal 101, evaluating avelumab* in combination with axitinib, compared with sunitinib as initial therapy for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), will be presented for the first time during the Presidential Symposium at ESMO on Sunday, October 21, 2018 at 5:20 PM - 5:35 PM CEST. Avelumab is being jointly developed and commercialized with Pfizer. The results represent the first positive Phase III immunotherapy trial in combination with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in any tumor type, supporting Merck's interest in the potential use of avelumab in combination with currently approved therapies and novel agents. These results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Other updates include new avelumab data in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer.

New data for M7824 will be presented from expansion cohorts of two ongoing Phase I clinical trials, including the first tumor-specific data for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), biliary tract cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition, updated data for M7824 in patients with gastric cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will be shared. M7824, discovered in-house at Merck, is an investigational bifunctional immunotherapy designed to combine a transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) trap by 'fusing' it with the anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) mechanism. To date more than 650 patients with various types of solid tumors have been treated across the program with M7824 and the safety profile is consistent with that observed with other PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and previously described skin lesions (keratoacanthomas, SCC, hyperkeratosis) associated with TGF-β-inhibiting therapies.

Data for tepotinib** include results from three Phase II trials in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) TKI-resistant NSCLC and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, providing further evidence of this precision medicine's potential clinical activity in a range of tumors. Tepotinib, discovered in-house at Merck, is an investigational, oral MET inhibitor that is designed to selectively inhibit the oncogenic MET receptor signaling caused by MET (gene) alterations or MET protein overexpression.

Additional pipeline abstracts feature updated data from Merck's comprehensive DNA damage response (DDR) portfolio. These include results from a Phase I trial investigating M6620 (formerly VX-970) in combination with gemcitabine in patients with advanced NSCLC, and combined data from two Phase I trials of DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, M3814. Results will also be shared from a Phase I/II trial of M7583, a Bruton's TKI, in patients with B-cell malignancies, as well as a retrospective analysis of the Phase I/II Poseidon study investigating abituzumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).

Data to be presented at the congress for Erbitux ® will add to the growing body of real-world evidence supporting the therapy's role as a standard of care in RAS wild-type mCRC and first-line recurrent or metastatic SCCHN (R/M SCCHN), and for patients with locally advanced SCCHN (LA SCCHN) who may not be able to tolerate cisplatin-based regimens in full.  

*Avelumab is under clinical investigation for the treatment of RCC, MCC, CRC, gastric and GEJ cancer, and has not been demonstrated to be safe and effective for these indications. There is no guarantee that avelumab will be approved for RCC, CRC, gastric or GEJ cancer by any health authority worldwide.

**Tepotinib is the recommended International Nonproprietary Name (INN) for the MET kinase inhibitor MSC2156119J. Tepotinib is currently under clinical investigation and not approved for any use anywhere in the world.

Tepotinib, M7824, M3814, M7583, M6620 and abituzumab are under clinical investigation and have not been proven to be safe and effective. There is no guarantee any product will be approved in the sought-after indication by any health authority worldwide.

Notes to Editors  

Key Merck-supported abstracts slated for presentation are listed below. In addition, a number of investigator-sponsored studies have been accepted (not listed).

    Title                   Lead Author   Abstract #  Presentation       Location

                                                      Date / Time
    Late-Breaking Abstracts
    JAVELIN Renal 101:      R Motzer      LBA6_PR     Sun, Oct 21,       Hall A2 -
    a randomized,                                     4:30 - 6:10 PM     Room 18
    phase 3 study of                                  (5:20 - 5:35 PM
    avelumab +                                        lecture time)
    axitinib vs                                      
    sunitinib as
    treatment of
    advanced renal
    cell carcinoma                        

    Poster Sessions
    Avelumab                T Doi         659P        Sun, Oct 21        Hall A3 -
    (anti-PD-L1) in                                   12:45 - 1:45 PM    Poster Area
    Japanese patients                                                    Networking Hub
    with advanced
    gastric or
    junction cancer
    (GC/GEJC): updated
    results from the              
    phase 1b JAVELIN                                      
    Solid Tumor JPN                              
    Avelumab in             P Nathan      1290P       Sun, Oct 21,       Hall A3 -
    European patients                                 12:45 - 1:45 PM    Poster Area
    (pts) with                                                           Networking Hub
    metastatic Merkel
    cell carcinoma
    (mMCC): experience                       
    from an ad hoc                                        
    expanded access                         
    program (EAP)
    Cost-effectiveness      M Bharmal     1291P       Sun, Oct 21,       Hall A3 -
    (CE) of avelumab                                  12:45 - 1:45 PM    Poster Area
    vs standard care                                                     Networking Hub
    (SC) for the
    treatment of
    patients (pts)
    with metastatic                                           
    Merkel cell                                
    carcinoma (mMCC)  
    Responder analysis      SP D'Angelo   1282P       Sun, Oct 21,       Hall A3 -
    based on                                          12:45 - 1:45 PM    Poster Area
    patient-reported                                                     Networking Hub
    outcomes (PROs)
    and clinical
    endpoints (CEPs)
    in patients (pts)
    with metastatic
    Merkel cell                                     
    carcinoma (mMCC)                                        
    treated with                               
    First-line (1L) or      UN                        Mon, Oct 22,       Hall A3 -
    second-line (2L)        Vaishampayan  877P        12:45 - 1:45 PM    Poster Area
    avelumab                                                             Networking Hub
    monotherapy in
    patients (pts)
    with advanced
    renal cell
    carcinoma (aRCC)
    enrolled in the 
    phase 1b JAVELIN 
    Solid Tumor trial 

    Title                         Lead Author   Abstract #  Presentation      Location
                                                            Date / Time
    M7824 (TGF β-trap/anti-PD-L1)

    Proffered Paper Session
    M7824                         BC Cho        1048O       Mon, Oct 22,      ICM, Room
    (MSB0011359C), a                                        2:45 - 4:15 PM    14B
    bifunctional                                            (3:00 PM
    fusion protein                                          lecture time)
    targeting PD-L1
    and TGF-β, in
    patients (pts)
    with advanced                            
    SCCHN: results                                  
    from a phase 1                                   
    Poster Sessions
    Updated results of            L Paz-Ares    1463P       Sat, Oct 20,      Hall A3 -
    M7824                                                   12:30 - 1:30 PM   Poster Area
    (MSB0011359C), a                                                          Networking Hub
    fusion protein
    targeting TGF-β                                               
    and PD-L1, in                                                           
    second-line (2L)                                        
    Assessment of PD1/            T Mrowiec     1931P       Sun, Oct 21,      Hall A3 -
    PD-L1                                                   12:45 - 1:45 PM   Poster Area
    colocalization in                                                         Networking Hub
    carcinoma (HCC)
    using brightfield
    double labeling                            
    and quantitative                                 
    digital image                      
    M7824                         C Yoo         757P        Sun, Oct 21,      Hall A3 -
    (MSB0011359C), a                                        12:45 - 1:45 PM   Poster Area
    bifunctional                                                              Networking Hub
    fusion protein
    targeting PD-L1
    and TGF-β, in
    Asian patients
    with pretreated
    biliary tract
    results from a                         
    phase 1 trial     
    M7824                         B Tan          643P       Sun, Oct 21,      Hall A3 -
    (MSB0011359C), a                                        12:45 - 1:45 PM   Poster Area
    bifunctional                                                              Networking Hub
    fusion protein
    targeting PD-L1
    and TGF-β, in
    patients with
    (EAC): preliminary                                      
    results from a                            
    phase 1 cohort     
    Phase 1 study                 CC Lin         642P       Sun, Oct 21,      Hall A3 -
    results from an                                         12:45 - 1:45 PM   Poster Area
    esophageal                                                                Networking Hub
    squamous cell
    carcinoma (ESCC)
    cohort treated
    with M7824
    (MSB0011359C), a
    fusion protein
    growth factor β                                     
    (TGF-β) and                           
    Updated results               YJ Bang        661P       Sun, Oct 21,      Hall A3 -
    from a phase 1                                          12:45 - 1:45 PM   Poster Area
    trial of M7824                                                            Networking Hub
    (MSB0011359C), a
    fusion protein
    targeting PD-L1
    and TGF-β, in
    patients with                 
    recurrent or                                           
    refractory gastric                                

    Title                   Lead Author  Abstract #  Presentation      Location
                                                     Date / Time
    Proffered Paper Session
    Phase 2 study of        YL Wu        1377O       Fri, Oct 19,      Hall A2,
    tepotinib +                                      4:00 - 5:30 PM    Room 18
    gefitinib                                        (4:51 PM
    (TEP+GEF) in                                     lecture time)
    growth factor
    (EGFR)-mutant (MT)                   
    non-small lung                           
    cancer (NSCLC)   
    Poster Discussion
    Phase 2 trial of         BY Ryoo     621PD       Fri, Oct 19,      Hall B3,
    tepotinib vs                                     3:45 - 5:30 PM    Room 21
    sorafenib in Asian                               (4:25 PM
    patients (pts)                                   lecture time)
    with advanced                            
    carcinoma (HCC)  
    Poster Session
    Phase 2 efficacy         T Decaens   698P        Sun, Oct 21,      Hall A3 -
    and safety data                                  12:45 - 1:45 PM   Poster Area
    for the MET                                                        Networking Hub
    tepotinib in
    patients (pts)
    carcinoma (HCC)   

    Title              Lead Author  Abstract #  Presentation     Location
                                                Date / Time
    Poster Session
    Phase I dose       R Plummer    1437P       Sat, Oct 20,     Hall A3 -
    expansion data for                          12:30 - 1:30 PM  Poster Area
    M6620 (formerly                                              Networking Hub
    VX-970), a
    first-in-class ATR
    combined with
    gemcitabine (Gem)
    in patients (pts)
    with advanced   
    non-small cell 
    lung cancer                           

    Title              Lead Author     Abstract #  Presentation     Location
                                                   Date / Time
    Poster Session
    Safety, clinical   M Mau-Sørensen  1845P       Sat, Oct 20,     Hall A3 -
    activity and                                   12:30 - 1:30 PM  Poster Area
    pharmacological                                                 Networking Hub
    evaluation of the
    protein kinase
    (DNAPK) inhibitor
    M3814: results                                           
    from two phase I  

    Title              Lead Author   Abstract #  Presentation    Location
                                                 Date / Time
    Poster Session
    Phase I/II, first  W Jurczak     1014PD      Sun, Oct 21,    Hall B3 -
    in human trial                               4:30 - 5:45 PM  Room 21
    with M7583, a
    Bruton's tyrosine
    kinase inhibitor
    (BTKi), in
    patients with B
    cell malignancies      

    Title              Lead Author   Abstract #  Presentation      Location
                                                 Date / Time
    Poster session
    Patient selection   R Laeufle    487P        Sun, Oct 21,      Hall A3 -
    for targeting                                12:45 - 1:45 PM   Poster Area
    integrin with                                                  Networking Hub
    abituzumab in
    patients with
    colorectal cancer
    (mCRC). A
    analysis of the                                      
    randomized phase                                        
    I/II Poseidon                            

    Title              Lead Author        Abstract #  Presentation       Location
                                                      Date / Time
    Poster Sessions
    Association of     L Miller-Phillips  124P        Sat, Oct 20,       Hall A3 -
    microRNA-21                                       12:30 - 1:30 PM    Poster Area
    (miR-21) with                                                        Networking Hub
    efficacy of
    cetuximab (cet)
    and bevacizumab
    (bev) in patients
    with metastatic
    colorectal cancer                                    
    (mCRC) within the
    FIRE-3 study (AIO 
    Retrospective RAS   A Sobrero         484P        Sun, Oct 21,       Hall A3 -
    analysis of the                                   12:45 - 1:45 PM    Poster Area
    EPIC trial:                                                          Networking Hub
    Cetuximab plus
    irinotecan versus
    irinotecan alone
    in patients with
    third- and                           
    colorectal cancer
    Factors             DP Modest         509P        Sun, Oct 21,       Hall A3 -
    influencing                                       12:45 - 1:45 PM    Poster Area
    conversion to                                                        Networking Hub
    resectability and
    survival after
    resection of
    metastases in RAS
    WT metastatic
    colorectal cancer                                      
    (mCRC): analysis                                           
    of FIRE-3-                                  
    Initial report of   E Oki             493P        Sun, Oct 21,       Hall A3 -
    a phase I/II study                                12:45 - 1:45 PM    Poster Area
    of S-1 and                                                           Networking Hub
    irinotecan (IRIS)
    in combination
    with cetuximab in
    patients with                                          
    wild-type (wt) RAS                                         
    colorectal cancer 
    miR-31 as a         Y Gaston-Mathé    521P        Sun, Oct 21,       Hall A3 -
    prognostic and                                    12:45 - 1:45 PM    Poster Area
    predictive marker                                                    Networking Hub
    of disease-free
    survival (DFS) in
    resected stage III
    colon cancer: a                             
    analysis of the  
    PETACC-8 trial    
    Targeted therapies  BC Xing           510P        Sun, Oct 21,       Hall A3 -
    in conversion                                     12:45 - 1:45 PM    Poster Area
    therapy in mCRC: A                                                   Networking Hub
    systematic review 
    and meta-analysis 
    Phase II study of   H Osawa           481P        Sun, Oct 21,       Hall A3 -
    cetuximab                                         12:45 - 1:45 PM    Poster Area
    rechallenge in                                                       Networking Hub
    patients with RAS
    colorectal cancer:                               
    Prospective         X García-Albéniz  486P        Sun, Oct 21,       Hall A3 -
    biomarker study in                                12:45 - 1:45 PM    Poster Area
    advanced RAS                                                         Networking Hub
    colorectal cancer.
    POSIBA trial.     
    (GEMCAD 10-02)    
    Cetuximab +         C Le Tourneau     1057P       Sun, Oct 21,       Hall A3 -
    platinum-based                                    12:45 - 1:45 PM    Poster Area
    therapy (PBT) as a                                                   Networking Hub
    treatment for
    patients with
    ic squamous cell
    carcinoma of the
    head and neck (R/M                                            
    SCCHN): an                                                        
    study (ENCORE)      
    Can concomitant     J Dunst           1108P        Sun, Oct 21,      Hall A3 -    
    diseases predict                                   12:45 - 1:45 PM   Poster Area
    the compliance                                                       Networking Hub
    with cisplatin
    plus RT in
    patients with
    locally advanced
    squamous cell
    carcinoma of the
    head and neck (LA
    SCCHN)? An
    endpoint analysis                                    
    of the COMPLY                               
    Cetuximab in        JC Ham            1068P        Sun, Oct 21,      Hall A3 -
    combination with                                   12:45 - 1:45 PM   Poster Area
    methotrexate (MTX)                                                   Networking Hub
    as first-line
    treatment in
    recurrent or
    metastatic (R/M)
    squamous cell
    carcinoma of the
    head and neck
    (SCCHN), a phase
    Ib - randomized                                    
    phase II study                                        
    versus single                               
    agent MTX         
    Cetuximab in        M Hecht           1064P         Sun, Oct 21,     Hall A3 -  
    combination with                                    12:45 - 1:45 PM  Poster Area
    platinum-based                                                       Networking Hub
    chemotherapy or
    radiotherapy in
    patients with
    recurrent and/or
    metastatic SSCHN
    in clinical
    routine: Updated                                    
    interim results of                                        
    the prospective                             
    SOCCER study      
    Cetuximab in        F Peyrade         1293P          Sun, Oct 21,    Hall A3 -
    patients with                                        12:45 - 1:45 PM Poster Area
    unresectable                                                         Networking Hu
    cutaneous squamous
    cell carcinoma is                                    
    safe and effective                                    
    - A real-life                               

About Avelumab  

Avelumab is a human anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antibody. Avelumab has been shown in preclinical models to engage both the adaptive and innate immune functions. By blocking the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 receptors, avelumab has been shown to release the suppression of the T cell-mediated antitumor immune response in preclinical models.[1]-[3] Avelumab has also been shown to induce NK cell-mediated direct tumor cell lysis via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro.[3]-[5] In November 2014, Merck and Pfizer announced a strategic alliance to co-develop and co-commercialize avelumab.

Avelumab is currently being evaluated in the JAVELIN clinical development program, which involves at least 30 clinical programs, including seven Phase III trials, and more than 8,600 patients across more than 15 different tumor types. For a comprehensive list of all avelumab trials, please visit clinicaltrials.gov.

Approved Indications in the US  

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval for avelumab (BAVENCIO ®) for the treatment of (i) adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC) and (ii) patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy, or have disease progression within 12  months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy. These indications are approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for these indications may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.

Important Safety Information from the US FDA Approved Label  

The warnings and precautions for BAVENCIO include immune-mediated adverse reactions (such as pneumonitis, hepatitis, colitis, endocrinopathies, nephritis and renal dysfunction, and other adverse reactions), infusion-related reactions and embryo-fetal toxicity.

Common adverse reactions (reported in at least 20% of patients) in patients treated with BAVENCIO for mMCC and patients with locally advanced or mUC include fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, diarrhea, nausea, infusion-related reaction, peripheral edema, decreased appetite/hypophagia, urinary tract infection and rash.

About M7824  

M7824 is an investigational bifunctional immunotherapy that is designed to bring together a TGF-β trap and 'fuse' it with the anti-PD-L1 mechanism. M7824 is designed to simultaneously block the two immunosuppressive pathways - targeting both pathways aims to control tumor growth by potentially restoring and enhancing anti-tumor responses. M7824 is currently in Phase I studies for solid tumors.

About Tepotinib  

Tepotinib (MSC2156119J) is an investigational, oral MET inhibitor that is thought to inhibit oncogenic MET receptor signaling caused by MET (gene) alterations, including both MET exon 14 skipping mutations and MET amplifications, or MET protein overexpression. It is a precision medicine and is designed to have a highly selective mechanism of action.

About M6620  

M6620 (previously known as VX-970) is an investigational small-molecule thought to inhibit ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR). ATR is believed to be a key sensor for DNA damage, activating the DNA damage checkpoint and leading to cell cycle arrest. Inhibition of ATR could potentially enhance the efficacy of DNA-damaging agents, but is also being investigated as a monotherapy against tumors with high levels of replication stress induced by overexpression of oncogenes.

About M3814  

M3814 is an investigational small-molecule which is thought to inhibit DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). DNA-PK is a key enzyme for non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), an important DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway. Clinical studies investigating combinations of M3814 with other commonly used DNA-damaging agents such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy are underway.

About M7583  

M7583 is an investigational therapy that is thought to be a highly selective covalent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTKi) designed to minimize off-target effects.

About Abituzumab  

Abituzumab is an investigational pan-αν integrin inhibiting monoclonal antibody thought to show activity against αvβ1, 3, 5, 6 and 8 integrin heterodimers. Merck entered into a development agreement with the SFJ Pharmaceuticals Group for abituzumab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This collaboration will allow Merck and SFJ to develop the potential of abituzumab in a targeted way, focusing on a patient population that may benefit from the treatment the most.

About Erbitux ® (cetuximab)  

Erbitux ® is a IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). As a monoclonal antibody, the mode of action of Erbitux is distinct from standard non-selective chemotherapy treatments in that it specifically targets and binds to the EGFR. This binding inhibits the activation of the receptor and the subsequent signal-transduction pathway, which results in reducing both the invasion of normal tissues by tumor cells and the spread of tumors to new sites. It is also believed to inhibit the ability of tumor cells to repair the damage caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy and to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels inside tumors, which appears to lead to an overall suppression of tumor growth. Based on in vitro evidence, Erbitux also targets cytotoxic immune effector cells towards EGFR expressing tumor cells (antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, ADCC).

The most commonly reported side effect with Erbitux is an acne-like skin rash. In approximately 5% of patients, hypersensitivity reactions may occur during treatment with Erbitux; about half of these reactions are severe.

Erbitux has already obtained market authorization in over 100 countries world-wide for the treatment of RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer and for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Merck licensed the right to market Erbitux, a registered trademark of ImClone LLC, outside the U.S. and Canada from ImClone LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly and Company, in 1998.

All Merck Press Releases are distributed by e-mail at the same time they become available on the Merck Website. Please go to http://www.merckgroup.com/subscribe to register online, change your selection or discontinue this service.

About Merck  

Merck is a leading science and technology company in healthcare, life science and performance materials. Almost 53,000 employees work to further develop technologies that improve and enhance life - from biopharmaceutical therapies to treat cancer or multiple sclerosis, cutting-edge systems for scientific research and production, to liquid crystals for smartphones and LCD televisions. In 2017, Merck generated sales of € 15.3 billion in 66 countries.

Founded in 1668, Merck is the world's oldest pharmaceutical and chemical company. The founding family remains the majority owner of the publicly listed corporate group. Merck holds the global rights to the Merck name and brand. The only exceptions are the United States and Canada, where the company operates as EMD Serono, MilliporeSigma and EMD Performance Materials.


  1. Dolan DE, Gupta S. PD-1 pathway inhibitors: changing the landscape of cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Control 2014;21:231-7.
  2. Dahan R et al. FcγRs modulate the anti-tumor activity of antibodies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. Cancer Cell 2015;28:285-95.
  3. Boyerinas B et al. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity of a novel anti-PD-L1 antibody avelumab (MSB0010718C) on human tumor cells. Cancer Immunol Res 2015;3:1148-57.
  4. Kohrt HE et al. Combination strategies to enhance antitumor ADCC. Immunotherapy 2012;4:511-27.
  5. Hamilton G, Rath B. Avelumab: combining immune checkpoint inhibition and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. Expert Opin Biol Ther 2017;17:515-23.

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