Afghan Special Forces raided a medical clinic in Wardak province on the night of July 8-9 and executed four civilians, Human Rights Watch said on Friday.
Afghan authorities should promptly and thoroughly investigate the attack and appropriately prosecute those responsible, it said.
Witnesses told Human Rights Watch that security forces entered the clinic in the Day Mirdad district. They killed a family caregiver and then detained and bound staff and family members accompanying patients.
They then separated four people for questioning - the clinic's director, a lab worker, a guard and a family caregiver. All except the director were later found dead from gunshots.
Under the laws of war, deliberate attacks on medical facilities and the summary killing of civilians or incapacitated combatants are war crimes.
"Attacks on medical facilities challenge the very foundations of the laws of war, and will persist if those responsible go unpunished," Human Rights Watch said.
"It's imperative for the Afghan government to prosecute the commanders who ordered the killings as well as the soldiers who pulled the trigger."
Night raids by Afghan Special Forces have increased sharply in 2019.
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